Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Multiple Transport Rule conditions and the OR operator

Here’s something I ran into today and would like to share. Exchange transport rules, also known as mail flow rules, can have multiple conditions, actions and/or exceptions which makes them flexible and a powerful tool. However, if you add multiple conditions an AND operator will be applied. This means that the rule will be triggered only when all conditions are True.

How can we replace the AND with an OR? For instance, if we want to apply a certain action when the sender is member of a group or a specific person? The answer is that we can’t do this with a single transport rule. There is an easy solution, simply create a copy of the transport rule and update the condition. Now the action will be applied when either of the transport rules is triggered because the single condition is True.

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Exchange 2016 courses on MVA, edX and their quality

Yesterday Tony Redmond published an article titled Virtual academies, odd questions, and MCSE recertification. In the post he shows numerous examples of bad worded questions and incorrect or outdated answers on Microsoft’s MVA platform. The Exchange 2013 and Exchange Online content on MVA could definitely use a thorough upgrade.

On May the 3rd the Exchange Team announced new Exchange 2016 material: Exchange Server 2016 Online Training Courses Now Available! Most notable was that the four courses were presented of the edX platform instead of their own MVA, not at least because the edX courses have cost $ 49 each.

Today I walked through the first course: Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 - 1: Infrastructure, which is free as long as you don’t require a certificate, to get an idea of the quality. My first impression is that the quality is not the worst I’ve ever seen, but there is a lot to improve. First let’s take a look at the first two modules and check for factual errors. Make sure to continue reading because there is more…

Module 1: Exchange Server 2016 Prerequisites and Requirements


This information seems to be taken from the Exchange 2007 documentation: Planning Processor Configurations. Both the 1.000 mailboxes per CPU core as well as the Average profile of 10 messages sent and 40 received are from the Exchange 2007 timeframe.



The Exchange 2016 sizing guidance refers to the article for Exchange 2013. There we can read that the per mailbox memory requirements for the 50 and 100 messages profile are 12 and 24 MB, not 3 and 6 MB as stated in the course.



This command is going to fail because of the dot after -Restart.



By al means, do not install any version of WMF later than 4.0. Recently WMF 5.0 was released but this new version is currently not supported with any version of Exchange. An no, the asterisk does not refer to anything.



This command is going to fail because of the space after RSAT.



Now this is an interesting question, the answer is ‘hidden’ in the title of the question.

Module 2: Exchange Server 2016 Deployment


The UM role was integrated with the Mailbox server role beginning with Exchange 2013, not 2016.



Single-server recommended to run in a VM? I fully agree, but never heard this recommendation form the Exchange team. And replicate the VM to another Hyper-V server? Hyper-V Replica is NOT supported for Exchange.



It’s not, by default there’s a V15 folder in that path under where Exchange is installed.



This command will fail because the /mode switch is missing.



The correct answer is EdgeTransport, no space between the words.



The correct name was Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE). I said was, because FOPE was replaced with Exchange Online Protection (EOP) a couple of years ago. Forefront Online Protection was never the name of a product or service.

Due to time constraints I decided to stop after the first two modules.

But wait, they are on MVA too!

Initially I wanted to explain how odd it is that Microsoft used the edX platform instead of their own MVA. But when researching for this article today I discovered that the exact same courses have been published on MVA just yesterday. And when I say ‘exact same courses’, I mean the same content but now presented in a video of two people reading the same course.


Different format, same content and same errors (WMF 4.0 or later):


For me personally this format of video learning does not work at all, because the pace is too slow. I prefer to read on my own pace and be able to skip some content when I’m already familiar with a topic. But if the video format works for you, use the MVA ones and save $ 49 per course.

In conclusion

The majority of the content in the first two modules of the first course was copy and pasted from the TechNet Library and did not add any value for experienced Exchange administrators. Paid courses in a better format are on edX, the free version is on MVA as a video. Pick one that works for you.

Be aware that the learning content contains errors and more authoritative information on the topics can be found in the TechNet Library as well on the Exchange Team Blog. As the guidance and features change with every CU or Exchange Team blog post, expect the quality of the learning content to get worse over time.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

The new HCW on Exchange 2010, a few notes

Today I used the new Exchange 2010 Hybrid Configuration Notes in a production environment and wanted to share my notes. This is not an extensive review of the new HCW, just a few short remarks.

First of all, Exchange 2010 Update Rollup 13 replaces the button to open the old HCW in EMC with a link to the download page for the new HCW. If you’re not ready for the new HCW and want to do additional testing, do not upgrade the CAS server where you’d execute the HCW yet to UR13.

The new HCW requires .Net Framework 4.5 which is typically not installed on an Exchange 2010 server because Exchange 2010 uses version 3.5. Make sure the latest updates are installed after installing 4.5 on the server.

My contacts at Microsoft assured me that the new HCW would operate just as the old one did, but better. Testing discovered that this is not entirely true. The new HCW creates Send Connectors and Organization Relationships with different names than the old HCW did. If pre HCW and post HCW scripts are being used to correct the shortcomings of the HCW they need to be updated to use the new names that now contain a GUID. Common tasks after running the HCW are changing the -TargetOwaURL parameter of the Organization Relationship or update the Send Connector to use one or more Edge Subscriptions instead of an HT server.


The page to edit the Hybrid Domains has improved a lot. Unfortunately it’s not possible to sort on enabled status or domain name by clicking on the column header. This makes locating a domain very hard, especially when you’re managing a couple of hundred accepted domains.

The new log file is much more verbose, but you won’t find it in the most logical places. The new location is $ENV:appdata\Microsoft\Exchange Hybrid Configuration. Tip: search for the string *ERROR* or WARNING. That’s correct, the string ERROR is enclosed by double quotes, WARNING is not.

Leaving feedback is much easier with the Give feedback link on every page of the wizard. Unfortunately the HCW freezes for some minutes after sending the feedback, but be patient and the HCW can be continued.

Friday, May 6, 2016

Office Online Server released, confusion around sizing

In case you missed it, the Office team is in the process of releasing the RTM version of Office Online Server (OOS) to the public. Customers with a Volume Licensing account can download OOS from the Volume License Servicing Center, OOS will be available on MSDN beginning May 9th, 2016.

For most Exchange admins OOS as well as the previous versions of the same product, are a new technology. For a great overview of deploying Exchange 2016 with OOS I recommend to view the recording or at least the slides of the session that Michel de Rooij recently presented on this subject.

Unfortunately the documentation for OOS is not (yet) of the high standard we’re seeing with Exchange and some other products. In this post I want to highlight two topics as an example: sizing requirements and virtualization support.

Sizing your OOS servers

Maybe the comparison with Exchange is not the best example here, because Exchange 2010 was the last version where sizing documentation was of a very high quality. For recent versions of Exchange the guidance is shifting towards using the calculator to design your environment, instead of using the calculator to validate your design.

The guidance for OOS is even worse:


That’s odd, SharePoint 2016 is a very different application and the recommended production architecture is to spread the roles over multiple servers. SharePoint does know the Single-Server farm concept but this is recommended for development, testing or very limited production use. The SharePoint teams gives two sets of minimum requirements, one for development and one for pilot or user acceptance scenario’s:


We’re sizing our production OOS deployment so let’s pick the largest one: 4 CPU cores and 24 GB of memory. The assumption here is that the Office team had the SharePoint Single-Server deployment in mind when they referred to SharePoint sizing for OOS.

But wait, there is another authoritative source: the Exchange team! In the Exchange 2016 Preferred Architecture is a short section dedicated to designing your OOS servers.


So without asking any questions about the number of users, % of OotW usage or whether we need view-only or editing capabilities we’re now at 8 CPU cores and 32 GB of memory, times two per datacenter of course because the PA assumes HA. Please note that the SharePoint team recommends to use at least double of your memory as the free disk space, so that would make 64 GB instead of 40.

With the current lack of real-world performance figures it probably would make sense to start with a relatively small server, monitor your deployment carefully and add resources if necessary. Which brings me to my next point.


Just as every other modern application OOS supports deployment in a virtualized environment, giving customers the choice and flexibility to deploy OOS on their own terms.


The first bullet is probably good advice for performance and manageability reasons, the second bullet is basic common sense. The interesting part is hidden in the first paragraph:

…is supported when you deploy it using Windows Server Hyper-V technology…

Is Microsoft really saying that you’re allowed to deploy OOS on Hyper-V but not on VMware, Xen, KVM or any other hypervisor solution that is certified through the Windows Server Virtualization Validation Program (SVVP)? Yes they are, but this has to be a mistake. I cannot think of any valid reason behind this statement.

But wait, there is more…

While researching this subject I noticed several other interesting or questionable statements in the OOS documentation on TechNet. To name a few:

The Office team recommends SSL offloading, that means that the load balancer would be the endpoint for the SSL tunnel and that all traffic between the load balancer and the real servers will be unencrypted. This goes against the security principle of treating both external as well as internal networks as unsafe by default. It’s considered best practice to deploy SSL bridging instead. The Office team acknowledges this and recommends to mitigate the risks involved by recommending the use of firewalls and private subnets to secure the traffic.

The load balancing section mentions a requirement for layer 7 routing and client affinity but lacks any recommendations on what affinity options to choose and does not mention how to configure the load balancer’s health checks. In practice we see that a lack on guidance in this area generally leads to bad implementations.

In conclusion

I could go on for a while, but I won’t. I recommend every Exchange organization considering OOS with Exchange 2016 to perform a cost-benefit analysis to start with, for instance if 95% of the users will use non-OotW clients to access Exchange 2016 mailboxes an OOS deployment maybe doesn’t make sense. And there is of course the licensing aspect, as editing capabilities are not free and are coupled to Office suit licensing.

I you are planning your OOS deployment with Exchange 2016, make sure to contact your Microsoft representative to confirm that OOS on your hypervisor will be supported. From a sizing perspective, start with a small VM and add resources when necessary. And make sure to keep an eye on the Twitter an Blog-o-sphere for more updates on this subject.

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Exchange 2016 admins, prepare for Office Online Server

Update may 10th, 2016: OOS now available on MSDN!

Support for in-line viewing and editing of attachements in Outlook on the Web was one of the (few) major updates when Exchange 2016 was released. Unfortunately the required Office Online Server (OOS), formerly known as Office Web Apps Server, has not been released yet.

This may change soon as Microsoft is starting to relaese the bits to the MSDN subscriber downloads portal. A categorie for Office Online Server was added, containing just an OOS Language Pack.


With the recent release of SharePoint 2016 RTM it is expected that OOS will be released anytime now. While we wait, let’s read up on OOS in the TechNet Library: Office Online Server.

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

What is the new Office 365 SPO address type?

Since a couple of days Office 365 customers are reporting that they notice a new SPO address type appearing at some of their user’s mailboxes.


The SPO initialism indicates the new address type is related to SharePoint Online features, the fact that it only appears on objects with a SharePoint Online license confirms this.

At this time there’s no public documentation that describes the function of this new addresses. If you happen to know more, please leave a comment.

Thursday, March 10, 2016

Exchange Hybrid? Microsoft has no plans to make creating shared mailboxes easy.

In two earlier posts (one, two) I wrote about the limited options to provision shared mailboxes in a hybrid environment. Or more specific, in an environment with directory synchronization. In short, it’s not possible to create shared mailboxes or convert regular mailboxes to shared in Exchange Online.

While both New-RemoteMailbox and Set-RemoteMailbox support the -Type parameter,  but it will only accept Regular, Room or Equipment as values and not Shared. We asked Microsoft to reconsider and add support to create remote shared mailboxes. Unfortunately the Design Change Request (DCR) was rejected. No specific reason was given but indicated was that our request was the first and only ask for this feature.

imageEarlier, when we suggested to remove the Convert to shared button from EAC Microsoft stated they considered customers wanting to convert a mailbox to shared a ‘niche scenario’. If you disagree and think customers should be able to provision and convert to shared mailboxes, make sure to let Microsoft know. Managed customers should ask their TAM, for smaller customers I’m afraid they need to burn a $499 support call as I’m not aware of another channel to add your request to Microsoft’s database.

For now this means that new shared mailboxes need to be provisioned on-premises and then be moved to Exchange Online. To convert a mailbox in Exchange Online we need to move it back to on-premises, convert the mailbox and then move it to Exchange Online again. Or read my work-around: Convert a user mailbox to shared in a hybrid environment.

Thursday, February 25, 2016

PowerShell 5.0 re-released. Do not install on Exchange!

Two weeks ago Microsoft decided to offer the latest version of .Net Framework as a recommended update. Many Exchange admins found out the hard way that it’s not wise to install every single update without checking if it is actually supported to run them in combination with Exchange. In case of .Net Framework 4.6.1 there were in fact known issues, as some people soon discovered.

Today Microsoft re-released Windows Management Framework (WMF) 5.0 RTM. WMF included PowerShell 5.0 which brings many new features. Advanced administrators are probably looking forward to install WMF 5.0 on all their systems as soon as possible. But don’t do that, not before you’re absolutely sure that it is supported with Exchange.

This information can be found in the Exchange Server Supportability Matrix, one of the most important Exchange resources that’s often overlooked. In the ESSM we find for instance that .Net Framework 4.6 is not supported:


And the same applies to WMF 5.0:


And for customers with Outlook 2007 who consider Exchange 2016:


By the way, it’s perfectly fine to use PowerShell (WMF) 5.0 to connect to Exchange Online. In fact, if you’re on the November update of Windows 10 (Version 1511) this means that PowerShell 5.0 is already installed on your system.

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Exchange Hybrid Configuration Wizard log file locations

The Hybrid Configuration Wizard (HCW) is an incredibly powerful tool. A single wizard both updates the hybrid configuration object as well as configures your on-premises Exchange environment, Exchange Online and Exchange Online Protection (EOP). The first part is usually not the problem, but the following phases of the process sometimes fail.

If you run into an error there’s usually a referral to the log file included but if you work more often with the HCW you may automatically navigate to the following path:


While this worked for the legacy HCW, the log for the new ‘cloud application’ HCW has a different location:

$ENV:appdata\Microsoft\Exchange Hybrid Configuration

The new HCW includes a link to the log files in the wizard, but if you need to consult the logs when you’re not actually working in the HCW it’s good to know the location.

Friday, February 19, 2016

Convert a user mailbox to shared in a hybrid environment.

In a hybrid environment it’s not supported to convert user mailboxes to regular, even there is a link in EAC to do this. It seems to work, but the changes that are made in Exchange Online won’t properly sync back to on-premises. I wrote about this in an earlier post: Do not convert synced mailboxes to shared in a hybrid environment.

After that I kept working with Microsoft to obtain a better understanding of the issue and ultimately develop a process to do this conversion.

Disclaimer: This process was developed in a lab environment under the guidance of Microsoft Premier Support. Before doing this in your environment, make sure you check with your Microsoft contact if they support this procedure until any official guidance has been published.

To convert a mailbox to shared, we need to perform three steps:

  • Convert the mailbox to shared in Exchange Online
  • Modify the on-premises AD attributes accordingly
  • Revoke the Exchange Online license

In Exchange Online simply convert the mailbox to the correct type:

Set-Mailbox MyMailbox -Type Shared

Now in Active Directory Users and Computers, make sure you enabled Advanced Features under the View menu option. Next navigate to the AD object (mail user), open it’s properties and go to the Attribute Editor tab.

Tip: Write down the values before making any changes. Or even better, dump all AD attributes and their values to a text file:
Get-ADUser MyMailbox -Properties * > before.txt.

Now update the following attributes with these values:

  • msExchRemoteRecipientType: 100
  • msExchRecipientTypeDetails: 34359738368


Last step is to revoke the Exchange Online license. This is optional but in most cases something you want to do as a shared mailbox does not require a license. Simply use the Office 365 portal and find the user under Active Users. Remove the Exchange Online license.

After we revoked the license it’s important to validate the license status in Azure AD:

Get-MSOLUser -UserPrincipalName | fl *lic*


Pay attention to the LicenseReconciliationNeeded attribute, this should be False. If LicenseReconciliationNeeded returns True Exchange Online thinks this mailbox requires a license and entered the 30 day grace period. A fix