Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Multiple Transport Rule conditions and the OR operator

Here’s something I ran into today and would like to share. Exchange transport rules, also known as mail flow rules, can have multiple conditions, actions and/or exceptions which makes them flexible and a powerful tool. However, if you add multiple conditions an AND operator will be applied. This means that the rule will be triggered only when all conditions are True.

How can we replace the AND with an OR? For instance, if we want to apply a certain action when the sender is member of a group or a specific person? The answer is that we can’t do this with a single transport rule. There is an easy solution, simply create a copy of the transport rule and update the condition. Now the action will be applied when either of the transport rules is triggered because the single condition is True.

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Exchange 2016 courses on MVA, edX and their quality

Yesterday Tony Redmond published an article titled Virtual academies, odd questions, and MCSE recertification. In the post he shows numerous examples of bad worded questions and incorrect or outdated answers on Microsoft’s MVA platform. The Exchange 2013 and Exchange Online content on MVA could definitely use a thorough upgrade.

On May the 3rd the Exchange Team announced new Exchange 2016 material: Exchange Server 2016 Online Training Courses Now Available! Most notable was that the four courses were presented of the edX platform instead of their own MVA, not at least because the edX courses have cost $ 49 each.

Today I walked through the first course: Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 - 1: Infrastructure, which is free as long as you don’t require a certificate, to get an idea of the quality. My first impression is that the quality is not the worst I’ve ever seen, but there is a lot to improve. First let’s take a look at the first two modules and check for factual errors. Make sure to continue reading because there is more…

Module 1: Exchange Server 2016 Prerequisites and Requirements


This information seems to be taken from the Exchange 2007 documentation: Planning Processor Configurations. Both the 1.000 mailboxes per CPU core as well as the Average profile of 10 messages sent and 40 received are from the Exchange 2007 timeframe.



The Exchange 2016 sizing guidance refers to the article for Exchange 2013. There we can read that the per mailbox memory requirements for the 50 and 100 messages profile are 12 and 24 MB, not 3 and 6 MB as stated in the course.



This command is going to fail because of the dot after -Restart.



By al means, do not install any version of WMF later than 4.0. Recently WMF 5.0 was released but this new version is currently not supported with any version of Exchange. An no, the asterisk does not refer to anything.



This command is going to fail because of the space after RSAT.



Now this is an interesting question, the answer is ‘hidden’ in the title of the question.

Module 2: Exchange Server 2016 Deployment


The UM role was integrated with the Mailbox server role beginning with Exchange 2013, not 2016.



Single-server recommended to run in a VM? I fully agree, but never heard this recommendation form the Exchange team. And replicate the VM to another Hyper-V server? Hyper-V Replica is NOT supported for Exchange.



It’s not, by default there’s a V15 folder in that path under where Exchange is installed.



This command will fail because the /mode switch is missing.



The correct answer is EdgeTransport, no space between the words.



The correct name was Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE). I said was, because FOPE was replaced with Exchange Online Protection (EOP) a couple of years ago. Forefront Online Protection was never the name of a product or service.

Due to time constraints I decided to stop after the first two modules.

But wait, they are on MVA too!

Initially I wanted to explain how odd it is that Microsoft used the edX platform instead of their own MVA. But when researching for this article today I discovered that the exact same courses have been published on MVA just yesterday. And when I say ‘exact same courses’, I mean the same content but now presented in a video of two people reading the same course.


Different format, same content and same errors (WMF 4.0 or later):


For me personally this format of video learning does not work at all, because the pace is too slow. I prefer to read on my own pace and be able to skip some content when I’m already familiar with a topic. But if the video format works for you, use the MVA ones and save $ 49 per course.

In conclusion

The majority of the content in the first two modules of the first course was copy and pasted from the TechNet Library and did not add any value for experienced Exchange administrators. Paid courses in a better format are on edX, the free version is on MVA as a video. Pick one that works for you.

Be aware that the learning content contains errors and more authoritative information on the topics can be found in the TechNet Library as well on the Exchange Team Blog. As the guidance and features change with every CU or Exchange Team blog post, expect the quality of the learning content to get worse over time.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

The new HCW on Exchange 2010, a few notes

Today I used the new Exchange 2010 Hybrid Configuration Notes in a production environment and wanted to share my notes. This is not an extensive review of the new HCW, just a few short remarks.

First of all, Exchange 2010 Update Rollup 13 replaces the button to open the old HCW in EMC with a link to the download page for the new HCW. If you’re not ready for the new HCW and want to do additional testing, do not upgrade the CAS server where you’d execute the HCW yet to UR13.

The new HCW requires .Net Framework 4.5 which is typically not installed on an Exchange 2010 server because Exchange 2010 uses version 3.5. Make sure the latest updates are installed after installing 4.5 on the server.

My contacts at Microsoft assured me that the new HCW would operate just as the old one did, but better. Testing discovered that this is not entirely true. The new HCW creates Send Connectors and Organization Relationships with different names than the old HCW did. If pre HCW and post HCW scripts are being used to correct the shortcomings of the HCW they need to be updated to use the new names that now contain a GUID. Common tasks after running the HCW are changing the -TargetOwaURL parameter of the Organization Relationship or update the Send Connector to use one or more Edge Subscriptions instead of an HT server.


The page to edit the Hybrid Domains has improved a lot. Unfortunately it’s not possible to sort on enabled status or domain name by clicking on the column header. This makes locating a domain very hard, especially when you’re managing a couple of hundred accepted domains.

The new log file is much more verbose, but you won’t find it in the most logical places. The new location is $ENV:appdata\Microsoft\Exchange Hybrid Configuration. Tip: search for the string *ERROR* or WARNING. That’s correct, the string ERROR is enclosed by double quotes, WARNING is not.

Leaving feedback is much easier with the Give feedback link on every page of the wizard. Unfortunately the HCW freezes for some minutes after sending the feedback, but be patient and the HCW can be continued.

Friday, May 6, 2016

Office Online Server released, confusion around sizing

In case you missed it, the Office team is in the process of releasing the RTM version of Office Online Server (OOS) to the public. Customers with a Volume Licensing account can download OOS from the Volume License Servicing Center, OOS will be available on MSDN beginning May 9th, 2016.

For most Exchange admins OOS as well as the previous versions of the same product, are a new technology. For a great overview of deploying Exchange 2016 with OOS I recommend to view the recording or at least the slides of the session that Michel de Rooij recently presented on this subject.

Unfortunately the documentation for OOS is not (yet) of the high standard we’re seeing with Exchange and some other products. In this post I want to highlight two topics as an example: sizing requirements and virtualization support.

Sizing your OOS servers

Maybe the comparison with Exchange is not the best example here, because Exchange 2010 was the last version where sizing documentation was of a very high quality. For recent versions of Exchange the guidance is shifting towards using the calculator to design your environment, instead of using the calculator to validate your design.

The guidance for OOS is even worse:


That’s odd, SharePoint 2016 is a very different application and the recommended production architecture is to spread the roles over multiple servers. SharePoint does know the Single-Server farm concept but this is recommended for development, testing or very limited production use. The SharePoint teams gives two sets of minimum requirements, one for development and one for pilot or user acceptance scenario’s:


We’re sizing our production OOS deployment so let’s pick the largest one: 4 CPU cores and 24 GB of memory. The assumption here is that the Office team had the SharePoint Single-Server deployment in mind when they referred to SharePoint sizing for OOS.

But wait, there is another authoritative source: the Exchange team! In the Exchange 2016 Preferred Architecture is a short section dedicated to designing your OOS servers.


So without asking any questions about the number of users, % of OotW usage or whether we need view-only or editing capabilities we’re now at 8 CPU cores and 32 GB of memory, times two per datacenter of course because the PA assumes HA. Please note that the SharePoint team recommends to use at least double of your memory as the free disk space, so that would make 64 GB instead of 40.

With the current lack of real-world performance figures it probably would make sense to start with a relatively small server, monitor your deployment carefully and add resources if necessary. Which brings me to my next point.


Just as every other modern application OOS supports deployment in a virtualized environment, giving customers the choice and flexibility to deploy OOS on their own terms.


The first bullet is probably good advice for performance and manageability reasons, the second bullet is basic common sense. The interesting part is hidden in the first paragraph:

…is supported when you deploy it using Windows Server Hyper-V technology…

Is Microsoft really saying that you’re allowed to deploy OOS on Hyper-V but not on VMware, Xen, KVM or any other hypervisor solution that is certified through the Windows Server Virtualization Validation Program (SVVP)? Yes they are, but this has to be a mistake. I cannot think of any valid reason behind this statement.

But wait, there is more…

While researching this subject I noticed several other interesting or questionable statements in the OOS documentation on TechNet. To name a few:

The Office team recommends SSL offloading, that means that the load balancer would be the endpoint for the SSL tunnel and that all traffic between the load balancer and the real servers will be unencrypted. This goes against the security principle of treating both external as well as internal networks as unsafe by default. It’s considered best practice to deploy SSL bridging instead. The Office team acknowledges this and recommends to mitigate the risks involved by recommending the use of firewalls and private subnets to secure the traffic.

The load balancing section mentions a requirement for layer 7 routing and client affinity but lacks any recommendations on what affinity options to choose and does not mention how to configure the load balancer’s health checks. In practice we see that a lack on guidance in this area generally leads to bad implementations.

In conclusion

I could go on for a while, but I won’t. I recommend every Exchange organization considering OOS with Exchange 2016 to perform a cost-benefit analysis to start with, for instance if 95% of the users will use non-OotW clients to access Exchange 2016 mailboxes an OOS deployment maybe doesn’t make sense. And there is of course the licensing aspect, as editing capabilities are not free and are coupled to Office suit licensing.

I you are planning your OOS deployment with Exchange 2016, make sure to contact your Microsoft representative to confirm that OOS on your hypervisor will be supported. From a sizing perspective, start with a small VM and add resources when necessary. And make sure to keep an eye on the Twitter an Blog-o-sphere for more updates on this subject.

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Exchange 2016 admins, prepare for Office Online Server

Update may 10th, 2016: OOS now available on MSDN!

Support for in-line viewing and editing of attachements in Outlook on the Web was one of the (few) major updates when Exchange 2016 was released. Unfortunately the required Office Online Server (OOS), formerly known as Office Web Apps Server, has not been released yet.

This may change soon as Microsoft is starting to relaese the bits to the MSDN subscriber downloads portal. A categorie for Office Online Server was added, containing just an OOS Language Pack.


With the recent release of SharePoint 2016 RTM it is expected that OOS will be released anytime now. While we wait, let’s read up on OOS in the TechNet Library: Office Online Server.